Effective free energy and density of states

Markov Chains Monte Carlo to sample Boltzmann distribution and estimate expectation values at equilibrium

Metropolis test; it fails in sampling high (free) energy barriers

Wang-Landau method: estimate of the density of states through an iterative procedure which aims at getting flat energy histograms

Reference:

"Thermodynamics and structure of macromolecules from flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations", 2016, W. Janke and W, Paul, Soft Matter 12, 642 (1. introduction and 2. Background on simulation methods; I did not cover the multicanonical (MuMC) and the SAMC methods in my lecture)

Experimental tests of fluctuation theorems within single molecule pulling experiments

Reference:

Figures 5,6,7,9,10 in ""Non-equilibrium fluctuations in small systems: From physics to
biology", 2007, F. Ritort, arXiv:0705.0455v1 for the above references