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A controlled vocabulary is an established list of standardised terminology for use in indexing and retrieval of information. The list must be conceived as a structured list of descriptors explicitly enumerated. Each descriptor is a preferred term with an unambiguous and non-redundant definition, controlled by and available from a controlled vocabulary registration authority. Descriptors in a controlled vocabulary can have hierarchical, equivalent or associative relations. A controlled vocabulary is managed by an authority, which can be a thesaurus manager or a centralized organization responsible for managing the vocabulary. Controlled vocabularies allow a standardized way of indexing collections in a local database or online catalogue. It is also a powerful tool for web search queries and for sharing data on the web. Glossaries, thesauri, classification systems/taxonomies and subject headings, ontologies, are types of controlled vocabularies. They are also referred to as authority lists.
Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: Terminology.
Cultural / Public heritage institution
The expression cultural, or public, heritage institution comprises (mainly) public institution such as: museums, art galleries, libraries, state archives, audio-visual (film) archives, sound archives (music & other recorded sound), photo libraries and agencies, research centres and universities.
These organisations host physical cultural objects, and may digitise them to make them more widely accessible. They also host newer, born-digital cultural items. They then contribute metadata describing their digital collection (not the materials themselves) to Europeana, along with small thumbnail preview images. Some other types of preview can be supported, such as sound clips.
Work package 4 (WP4) Public Private Partnership (WP Leader: EDItEUR, United Kingdom) was entitled to investigate the potential for including commercial products in the Europeana Portal, adding the gift shop to European Union's GLAM Web sites, and to explore the state of the art in the management of metadata in the private sector (For further information, see: Linked Heritage: outline of the work packages).
The term data refers to electronically-stored information or recording, including but not limited to documents, databases, transcripts, and audio/visual recordings.
Data Exchange Agreement (DEA)
The terms under which Europeana and its users can make use of previews and descriptive metadata are established by the Europeana Data Exchange Agreement (DEA). The DEA is the central component of the Europeana Licensing Framework. It structures the relationship between Europeana and its data providers. As of 1 July 2012, the DEA replaced all the existing agreements between Europeana and its data providers and aggregators.
The DEA sets out two simple principles:
1) For all descriptive metadata provided to Europeana, data providers grant Europeana the right to publish the metadata under the terms of the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. This means that all metadata provided to Europeana can be re-used by third parties without any restrictions.
2) Each digital object (and the associated preview) that is available via Europeana needs to carry a rights label that describes its copyright status. Data providers grant Europeana the right to publish previews provided to Europeana. Previews may not be re-used by third parties unless the rights label related to the object allows such re-use (See: Europeana Available Rights Statements).
See: Content provider
In the aggregation landscape of Europeana, data set (also written dataset) is a collection of structured data supplied by content providers to the European Portal, directly or by means of a content aggregator. Each data set must comprise metadata declined according to the Europeana metadata reference model (ESE / EDM).
Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.
See: Data set
A digital object is an entity in which one or more content files and their corresponding metadata are united, physically and/or logically, through the use of a digital wrapper. Digital objects (or digital materials) refer to any item that is available digitally.
In the context of the Europeana aggregation landscape, digital objects can be generally referred to as content. Any data about content is encoded into metadata. According to Europeana Data Exchange Agreement, each digital object (and the associated preview) that is available via Europeana needs to carry a rights label that describes its copyright status. Data providers grant Europeana the right to publish previews provided to Europeana. Previews may not be re-used by third parties unless the rights label related to the object allows such re-use (See: Europeana Available Rights Statements).
Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: Digitisation life cycle
Digital preservation can be understood as the series of managed activities necessary to ensure continued access to digital materials for as long as necessary, involving the planning, resource allocation, and application of preservation methods and technologies to ensure that digital information of continuing value remains accessible and usable. It combines policies, strategies and actions to ensure access to reformatted and born digital content regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time.
Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: Digitisation life cycle.