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Digitisation (or Digitising) is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, a digital image, for the object, and digital form, for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitizing means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form. For a document the term means to trace the document image or capture the "corners" where the lines end or change direction.

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: Digitisation life cycle.



EDItEUR (UK) is the international group coordinating development of the standards infrastructure for electronic commerce in the book, e-book and serials sectors. EDItEUR provides its membership with research, standards and guidance in such diverse areas as: Electronic data interchange (EDI) and other e-commerce standards for book and serial transactions; bibliographic and product information: the standards infrastructure for digital publishing;  rights management and trading; radio frequency identification tags.

Established in 1991, EDItEUR is a truly international organisation with over 100 members from 22 countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, United States and most of the European countries.

EDItEUR is member of the Linked Heritage consortium covering the role of WP4 Leader where it actively participates to implement the ONIX mapping. In the context of the training and dissemination activities in WP7, EDItEUR designed two learning objects: Public-Private Partnership with Europeana and Persistent Identifiers: commercial and heritage views.



A discrete component of metadata, or a discrete component of a data structure defined by a DTD (Document type definition) or schema (often represented through markup in the form of a tag). An element may contain subelements that are called qualifiers in Dublin Core.



Europeana is the European Commission's flagship digital cultural heritage portal. It can be found at: It is a central discovery and access point for European historical, social, cultural and artistic materials that have been made available online in digital form by (mainly) cultural / public heritage institutions. Freely accessible to the public, and entirely publiccaly funded, Europeana itself primarily aims to offer:

Europeana Data Model (EDM)

The Europeana Data Model (EDM) was designed to replace the Europeana Semantic Elements (ESE). EDM will gradually make Europeana fit within a networked data environment. It is a much more flexible and precise model than ESE, and offers the opportunity to attach every statement to the specific resource it applies to, and to reflect some basic form of data provenance. The main EDM requirements include:

  • distinguishing between a provided item (painting, book) and its digital representations
  • distinguishing between an item and the metadata record describing it
  • allowing the ingestion of multiple records for the same item, which may contain contradictory statements about it

As a consequence of EDM having to meet these requirements, EDM data has a level of complexity above that which Europeana currently maintains. This level of complexity is comparable to what can be found in the data of many Europeana providers, and thus, it enables better exploitation of that data. Note also that, as much as possible, EDM re-uses elements coming from already-established vocabularies, such as Dublin Core, OAI-ORE, SKOS and CIDOC-CRM, thus lowering the cost of its creation and adoption.

For more information on EDM, you can refer to the EDM Definition and EDM Primer on Europeana's technical documents page. The EDM OWL ontology is accessible through content negotiation but it is also directly available. Please be aware that both and those documents are under constant revision. 

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.

See also: Web Ontology Language (OWL)

Europeana Network

Europeana Network, former Council of Content Providers and Aggregators (CCPA), is an open, expert forum comprising content holders and aggregators along with providers of technical, legal and strategic knowledge. It stands as an organisation that unites all individuals who have a stake in Europeana to ensure an effective dialogue with Europeana Foundation and Office at both strategic and practical levels.

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning objects: MINT Services and Why and how to contribute to Europeana .

Europeana Professional

Europeana Professional is the common website for Europeana projects, reaching cultural heritage professionals and technologists. It is the official source for technical information, metadata standards and case studies, and also brings together all project work.

Europeana Semantic Elements (ESE)

Europeana Semantic Elements (ESE) is an application profile based on a Dublin Core-based set of fields with additionally 12 specific europeana elements. ESE is a subset of the Europeana Data Model (EDM), a richer data model that will improve the way metadata can be provided and used in Europeana and beyond. ESE produces a flat record where it is not always possible to tell if a value applies to the original object or to its digital representation. If possible it would be better to provide data using the EDM format. All ESE data will be converted to EDM on ingestion but the conversion from ESE may not be as good as if you had provided EDM directly. Currently Europeana accepts three types of metadata, EDMEDM, ESEEDM or Original Format – EDM. The Europeana Ingestion team will carry out the transformation of the data and ensure material is enriched and portal ready.

MINT allows to convert LIDO metadata records into ESE. Even EDM profile is supported by MINT (see: MINT screencast EDM Ingestion Tool).

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.

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