Linked Heritage Glossary


This is the glossary of LH project

Europeana

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Intellectual property rights (IPR)

The term "Intellectual Property Rights" (IPR) refers to the legal rights granted with the aim to protect the creations of the intellect. These rights include Industrial Property Rights (e.g. patents, industrial design rights and trademarks) and Copyright (right of the author or creator) and Related Rights (rights of the performers, producers and broadcasting organisations) (See: The European IPR Helpdesk).

See also: Data Exchange Agreement (DEA)


Interoperability

Interoperability is the ability of the systems, procedures and culture of an organisation to be managed in such a way as to maximise opportunities for exchange and re-use of information, whether internally or externally. When organizations use the same set of rules for a certain activity, they can inter-operate or work together more efficiently (e.g. for creating mutual information systems such as online catalogues).

Paul Miller further divides interoperability into 6 types:

1: Technical interoperability – Facilitated by using common technical standards (e.g. file types, metadata, etc.).

2: Semantic interoperability – Facilitated by using common vocabularies for the terminologies used in data (e.g. thesauri).

3: Political/Human interoperability – Facilitated by understanding and overcoming the barrierscaused by the different experiences and agendas of users and information providers

4: Inter-community interoperability – Facilitated by recognising differences between discipline communities and overcoming them by working together (e.g. Museums, archives and libraries)

5: Legal interoperability – Facilitated by following the legal restraints imposed on informationproviders (e.g. Freedom of Information and Data Protection legislation)

6: International Interoperability – Facilitated by recognising and overcoming the barriers caused by cultural and linguistic differences.

Source: Helen Ashby – Gordon McKenna – Matthew Stiff. SPECTRUM Knowledge. London: MDA, 2001, p. 63 in ATHENA WP3 (2011), Digitisation: standards landscape for european museums, archives, libraries, p. 13.

See also: ISO, ISO norm, Standard


LIDO

LIDO: Lightweight Information Describing Objects is an XML harvesting schema. It is the result of a collaborative effort of international stakeholders in the museum sector, starting in 2008, to create a common solution for contributing cultural heritage content to web applications.

LIDO is based on CIDOC-CRM Conceptual Reference Model (CRM). It comes from the integration between CDWA Lite and museumdat metadata schemas and it is based on SPECTRUM standard. Being an application of the CIDOC-CRM, it provides an explicit format to deliver (museum’s) object information in a standardised way.

LIDO is a schema intended for delivering metadata, for use in a variety of online services, from an organisation's online collections database to portals of aggregated resources, as well as exposing, sharing and connecting data on the web.

MINT implemented LIDO as intermediate harvesting schema. Initially conceived for museum sector needs, it is currently used in cross-domain contexts proving its adaptability and effectiveness in preserving the integrity of rich metadata.

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.

See also: Aggregator, Harvesting schema, MINT


Linked data

Linked data is a pattern for hyperlinking machine-readable data sets to each other using Semantic Web techniques, especially via the use of RDF and URIs. Enables distributed SPARQL queries of the data sets and a browsing or discovery approach to finding information (as compared to a search strategy). Linked Data is intended for access by both humans and machines. Linked Data uses the RDF family of standards for data interchange (e.g., RDF/XML, RDFa, Turtle) and query (SPARQL). If Linked Data is published on the public Web, it is generally called Linked Open Data (See: W3C Government Linked Data Working Group: Linked data Glossary).

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: Linking Cultural Heritage Information.

See also: Linked open data, Linking open data cloud, Resource Description Framework (RDF), Semantic Web


Linked Heritage aggregation

The Linked Heritage aggregation includes data from archives, museums, libraries, research centres and universities (see: Linked Heritage partners and contributors), and covers 3D models, manuscripts, ancient prints, medieval antiquities, archaeological artefacts, monuments, Greek and Latin inscriptions, fossils, ancient and modern paintings, ethnographic collections and more. According to Europeana blog, the Linked Heritage aggregation is one of Europeana's biggest aggregators.

Linked open data

Linked open data (LOD) is a growing movement for organisations to make their existing data available in a machine-readable format. This enables users to create and combine data set and to make their own interpretations of data available in digestible formats and applications. LOD is all about opening up information and data as well as making it possibile to use and reuse it.

LOD is domain-independent.

LOD drive the following 10 principles:

1.: Data must be complete

2.: Data must be primary

3.: Data must be timely

4.: Data must be accessible

5.: Data must be machine-processable

6.: Access must be non-discriminatory

7.: Data formats must be non-proprietary

8.: Data must be license-free

9.: Permanance

10.: Usage costs

The 5 stars by Sir Tim Berners-Lee:

1.: Information is available on the Web (any format) under an open license

2.: Informationis available as structered data (e.g. Excel instead of an image scan of a atable)

3.: Non-proprietary formats are used (e.g CSV instead of Excel)

4.: URI identification is used so that people can point at an individual data

5.: Data is linked to other data to provide context.

Data represent "things" (known as resources) that can can be anything, including: objects, archival material, books and other document types, media files, places, persons, and organisations, events and concepts (such as material, colour, and style). RDF is the standard in linked data used to describe the "things".

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: Linking Cultural Heritage Information.

See also: Linked data, Linking open data cloud, Resource Description Framework (RDF), Semantic Web


Metadata

Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. Metadata is often called data about data or information about information. According to Tim Berners-Lee's axiom "metadata is data".

The term metadata is used differently in different communities. Some use it to refer to machine understandable information, while others use it only for records that describe electronic resources. In the library environment, metadata is commonly used for any formal scheme of resource description, applying to any type of object, digital or non-digital. There are three main types of metadata: descriptive metadata, structural metadata and administrative metadata, each of them contributing to the management of information resources and help to ensure their intellectual integrity both now and in the future (See: NISO, Understanding Metadata 2004).

In the context of the Linked Heritage Aggregation, metadata describe digital objects of one of the type accepted by Europeana that will govern which facet they appear under in the portal:

  • text (books, letters, archival papers, dissertations, poems, newspaper articles, facsimiles, manuscripts and music scores)
  • image (paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, pictures of museum objects, maps, graphic designs, plans and musical notation)
  • sound (music and spoken word from cylinders, tapes, discs and radio broadcasts)
  • video (films, news broadcasts and television programmes) and
  • 3D (virtual 3D representations of objects, architecture or places).

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.

See also: Aggregation, Content, Data, Data Exchange Agreement (DEA), Mapping


MINT

MINT: Metadata Interoperability Services composes a web-based platform that was designed and developed to facilitate aggregation initiatives for cultural heritage content and metadata in Europe.

It functions as a server for content ingestion and is based on open source software developed by the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) in the context of the ATHENA project. MINT allows content providers to upload, map, validate and deliver metadata to be sent to Europeana in an only web environment. The platform also provides a management system both for users and organisations that allows the deployment and operation of different aggregation schemas with corresponding user roles and access rights.

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.


Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)

The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, commonly referred to as OAI-PMH or OAI protocol, is a protocol defined by the Open Archive Initiative. It provides a method for data providers to make records for their items (as a means of exposing metadata) available for harvesting by service providers that operate through a harvester.

Explore further the Linked Heritage learning object: MINT Services.

See also: Harvesting, MINT


OWL


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